Dyslexia is a common learning disorder that primarily affects reading and language processing. It is characterized by difficulties in accurate and fluent word recognition, poor spelling, and decoding abilities.

Specialist Behaviour Support Services and Speech Pathology

Teacher helping a student with Dyslexia in the classroom

Definition of Dyslexia

Dyslexia is a common learning disorder that primarily affects reading and language processing. It is characterized by difficulties in accurate and fluent word recognition, poor spelling, and decoding abilities.

People with Dyslexia often have normal intelligence and have no inherent problems with vision or hearing.

Dyslexia is a lifelong condition that can vary in severity and may present challenges in various aspects of life. Causes of Dyslexia The exact causes of Dyslexia are still being researched, but evidence suggests that it is likely to be a combination of genetic and neurological factors.

Here are some key factors that may contribute to the development of Dyslexia:

Genetic factors: Dyslexia often runs in families, indicating a genetic component. Specific genes associated with language and reading skills have been identified as potential risk factors for Dyslexia. However, it is important to note that Dyslexia is a complex trait influenced by multiple genes, and the specific genes involved have not been fully determined.

Neurological factors: Individuals with Dyslexia may have differences in brain structure and function compared to those without Dyslexia. Brain imaging studies have shown that certain areas involved in language processing, such as the left hemisphere of the brain (including the areas of the brain called the angular gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus), may function differently in people with Dyslexia.

Phonological processing difficulties: Phonological processing refers to the ability to recognize and manipulate the sounds in spoken language. Difficulties in phonological processing are considered a core feature of Dyslexia. It is believed that individuals with Dyslexia may have challenges in processing and manipulating the sounds of language, which can affect their ability to map sounds to letters and decode words accurately.

Rapid automatized naming (RAN) deficits: Rapid automatized naming refers to the ability to quickly name a series of familiar items, such as letters, numbers, or objects. Research suggests that individuals with Dyslexia may have difficulties with rapid automatized naming tasks, which can impact their reading fluency. It is important to note that Dyslexia is not caused by factors such as intelligence, vision problems, or lack of effort. It is a specific learning disorder with neurological and genetic underpinnings.

Symptoms of Dyslexia

Dyslexia is a learning disorder that can manifest in various ways and can vary in severity from person to person. The specific symptoms of Dyslexia can also change over time as individuals develop and encounter different reading and language demands. Here are some common symptoms and signs of Dyslexia:

Reading difficulties: People with Dyslexia often struggle with reading accuracy and fluency. They may experience problems in accurately decoding and recognizing words, leading to slow and laborious reading.

Reading comprehension may also be affected, as individuals may have difficulty understanding and retaining the meaning of what they have read.

Spelling difficulties: Dyslexia can affect spelling abilities. Individuals may have trouble memorizing and recalling the correct sequence of letters in words. They may misspell words, have difficulty with homophones (words that sound the same but have different spellings), and struggle with consistent spelling patterns.

Phonological difficulties: Phonological awareness refers to the ability to identify and manipulate the sounds in spoken language. Individuals with Dyslexia may have challenges with phonological processing, which can make it difficult for them to connect sounds to letters and blend sounds together to form words.

Writing challenges: Dyslexia can impact writing skills. Individuals may have difficulty with organizing their thoughts on paper, constructing coherent sentences and paragraphs, and using proper grammar and punctuation. Expressing themselves in writing can be challenging and may take more time and effort.

Slow reading rate: People with Dyslexia often read at a slower pace compared to their peers. The effort required to decode words and process the text can result in reduced reading speed.

Difficulty with sequencing: Dyslexia can affect the ability to accurately sequence letters, numbers, and other information. This can manifest in challenges with remembering the order of letters in words, the steps in a process, or the sequence of events in a story.

Word retrieval difficulties: Individuals with Dyslexia may experience difficulties in retrieving words from memory, both in spoken and written language. They may struggle to find the right words or experience word-finding pauses during conversation or writing. It's important to note that Dyslexia is not just a visual or reading problem, but rather a specific learning difference that affects language processing.

Tips on Differentiating Curriculum for Students with Dyslexia Although Dyslexia cannot be cured, various strategies and accommodations can help individuals manage their difficulties. Below are some ideas.


Providing Multi-sensory Instruction

Multi-sensory instruction is an approach that engages multiple senses to reinforce learning. For students with Dyslexia, this approach can be incredibly effective as it builds stronger neural connections in the brain. The simultaneous use of visual, auditory, tactile, and kinesthetic inputs can make learning more meaningful, engaging, and effective.


Hands-on Activities

Hands-on activities are crucial in multi-sensory instruction as they engage the tactile and kinesthetic senses, improving memory retention.

1. Phonics Pebbles: Phonics pebbles are stones with letters or combinations of letters written on them. Students can trace these letters with their fingers, linking the tactile sensation with the visual representation and auditory sound.

2. Sand Writing: Have students write words in a tray filled with sand, shaving cream, or rice. This is a fun and tactile way for them to practice spelling and letter formation.

3. Letter Construction: Use play dough, pipe cleaners, or other craft materials to construct letters and words. This activity engages both the hands and the mind, reinforcing the letter shapes and their corresponding sounds.


Visual Aids

Visual aids can be used to support learning by making abstract concepts more concrete.

1. Color Coding: Use different colors to highlight parts of speech, syllable types, or spelling patterns. This can help students visually distinguish and understand different elements of language.

2. Graphic Organizers: Tools like mind maps, flowcharts, and Venn diagrams can help students organize their thoughts and ideas visually, aiding comprehension and retention.

3. Sequential Cards: For story retelling or sequencing events, use cards with pictures. This provides a visual reference and can support the understanding of sequences and narrative structure.


Movement-Based Learning

Involving movement in learning can help students engage their whole body, making learning more active and dynamic.

1. Letter Hopscotch: Create a hopscotch grid but replace the numbers with letters. As students hop on a letter, they should say the letter name and sound. This helps reinforce the letter-sound relationship in a fun and active way.

2. Word Races: Write words on flashcards and spread them out in a large space. Have students race to find a specific word you call out. This can be a fun way to practice sight words and word recognition.

3. Phonics Dance: Incorporate specific movements with different phonetic sounds. For example, a "ssss" sound could be a slithering snake movement. This not only makes learning phonics fun but also engages the body, reinforcing the sound-letter relationships.

Through these multi-sensory strategies, learning becomes a more engaging and enriching experience. It's important to remember, however, that every student is unique, so these techniques should be adapted based on the learner's individual needs, strengths, and preferences.



Phonics Programs for Students with Dyslexia

Phonics instruction plays a critical role in reading development, especially for students with Dyslexia. It helps them understand the relationship between individual sounds (or phonemes) and the written letters (or graphemes) that represent them. When it comes to Dyslexia, structured, systematic, and explicit phonics programs are often recommended. These programs emphasize not only the relationship between sounds and letters but also provide ample practice opportunities for phoneme recognition, blending, segmenting, and decoding.


Structured Phonics Programs

A structured phonics program delivers instruction in a systematic, sequential manner. It usually begins with the simplest sounds and letter combinations before gradually progressing to more complex structures.

1. Progression of Phonics Instruction: In a structured program, phonics instruction typically begins with the most common individual letter-sound correspondences. For example, students might first learn the sounds for 'a', 't', 'm', and 's'. Once they master these, they can start blending them to make simple words like 'at', 'mat', and 'sat'.

2. Building Complexity: As students become proficient with simple sounds and blends, the program introduces more complex phonetic patterns like digraphs (two letters that make one sound, such as 'sh' or 'ch'), diphthongs (two vowels that make one sound, like 'oi' in 'coin'), and other vowel and consonant combinations.

3. Multisyllabic Words: Eventually, the program will advance to multisyllabic words, helping students learn how to break down, decode, and blend larger words.


Emphasizing Phoneme Recognition, Blending, Segmenting, and Decoding

The focus of these programs extends beyond just understanding the letter-sound relationships. They also emphasize key phonological skills like phoneme recognition, blending, segmenting, and decoding.

1. Phoneme Recognition: This is the ability to recognize and identify individual sounds in words. For instance, recognizing that the word 'cat' is made up of three sounds: /c/, /a/, /t/.

2. Blending: This is the ability to combine individual sounds to form words. After students have recognized the individual sounds, they need to blend them together to read the word. Using the previous example, /c/, /a/, /t/ blends to form 'cat'.

3. Segmenting: The opposite of blending, segmenting is the ability to break a word down into its individual sounds. For example, taking the word 'cat' and segmenting it into /c/, /a/, /t/.

4. Decoding: This is the process of translating a string of written letters (a word) into sounds, with the goal of reading the word. Effective decoding is crucial for reading fluency and comprehension.

Providing abundant practice opportunities in these areas is essential. Activities might include manipulating letter tiles to form words, sorting words based on phonetic patterns, playing phonics-based games, completing phonics worksheets, and reading decodable texts that align with the phonetic elements students are learning.

Remember, a structured phonics program for students with Dyslexia needs to be explicit, systematic, and repetitive, but also engaging and encouraging, in order to foster students' confidence and keep them motivated. With the right approach and plenty of practice, students with Dyslexia can make significant progress in their reading abilities.



Reading Accommodations for Students with Dyslexia

Students with Dyslexia often face challenges with reading fluency, accuracy, and comprehension. Therefore, accommodations that can help these students access and understand written content are crucial. Here, we'll discuss text-to-speech software, audiobooks, and other forms of assistive technology.

Text-to-Speech Software

Text-to-speech software converts written text into spoken words. This type of technology can be particularly useful for students with Dyslexia because it allows them to listen to the text while following along with the written words, reinforcing their understanding and helping them to process the information more easily. Here are some benefits:

1. Reading Comprehension: By hearing the text read aloud, students can focus more on understanding the material, rather than spending their mental energy on decoding the words.

2. Multisensory Learning: By combining visual and auditory learning, students can better connect sounds with their corresponding letters and words, which aids in improving reading skills.



Audiobooks provide another avenue for auditory learning. They can be used in conjunction with physical books to aid in comprehension and enjoyment of reading. Benefits include:

1. Increased Exposure: Audiobooks can give students access to a wider range of books, including ones that might be above their current reading level, thereby exposing them to more complex language and ideas.

2. Comprehension Skills: Listening to audiobooks can help improve comprehension skills, as students can focus on the meaning of the text without the added challenge of decoding.


Assistive Technology

Assistive technology refers to devices or software used to improve the functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities. Besides text-to-speech software and audiobooks, there are many other forms of assistive technology that can support students with Dyslexia.

1. Reading Pens: These devices can scan written text and read it aloud, which can be helpful for students when they encounter difficult words or phrases.

2. Speech Recognition Software: This software converts spoken language into written text, allowing students to write by speaking. This can help students express their ideas more fluently and with less frustration.

3. Word Prediction Software: This software predicts the word a user is typing and suggests completions. This can speed up the writing process and help with spelling.

4. Digital Notetaking Devices: These devices can help students organize, store, and retrieve notes, which can be especially useful for older students managing multiple assignments and deadlines.

Accommodations are an important part of supporting students with Dyslexia. By leveraging text-to-speech software, audiobooks, and other assistive technologies, we can help make reading more accessible and enjoyable for these students, thereby fostering their love of learning and boosting their confidence.



Reading Comprehension Strategies for Students with Dyslexia

While decoding words can be a significant hurdle for students with Dyslexia, understanding the content, or comprehension, is equally important. Here are a few strategies that can support students' reading comprehension:


Visualizing or creating mental images can help students understand and remember what they've read. When students create a picture or movie in their mind of what's happening in the text, they are more likely to recall and comprehend the details. Teachers can guide students through this process by:

1. Modeling: Demonstrate how to visualize by reading a passage and then describing the images that come to your mind.
2. Practice: Provide students with short passages and ask them to draw or describe what they visualize. Over time, students will be able to do this more independently.
3. Discussion: Encourage students to share their mental images and discuss how these images helped them understand the text.

Asking Questions

Asking questions before, during, and after reading can actively engage students with the text and improve comprehension. This strategy helps them clarify their understanding, make predictions, and think critically about the text. Here's how you can incorporate questioning:

1. Pre-Reading Questions: Pose questions about the topic, text structure, or pictures before reading to activate students' prior knowledge and set a purpose for reading.
2. During-Reading Questions: Encourage students to ask themselves questions while reading to monitor their understanding. They could question characters' motivations, the cause-effect relationships, or any confusing aspects.
3. Post-Reading Questions: Ask questions after reading to encourage reflection, summarization, and connection to broader concepts or personal experiences.

Making Connections

Making connections involves linking what students are reading to their own experiences (text-to-self), other texts they've read (text-to-text), or the larger world (text-to-world). This strategy makes reading more meaningful and aids comprehension by providing a familiar context. To cultivate this practice:

1. Modeling: Show students how to make connections by sharing your own text-to-self, text-to-text, and text-to-world links.
2. Prompts: Use prompts to encourage connections. For example, "Does this remind you of something in your life?", "Have you read another book with a similar theme?" or "How does this relate to what you know about the world?"
3. Discussion: Encourage students to share their connections and explain how these connections helped them understand the text.

By promoting the use of visualization, questioning, and making connections, educators can support students with Dyslexia in enhancing their reading comprehension skills. These strategies allow students to become more active and engaged readers, improving not only their understanding but also their enjoyment of reading.



Writing Supports for Students with Dyslexia

Word Banks

Word banks are lists of words that students can refer to when they are writing. They can be general or specific to a topic or subject. Here's how they can be utilized:

1. Vocabulary Expansion: Word banks can help students expand their vocabulary by providing them with a list of words related to a specific topic. This can be particularly beneficial for assignments in content-heavy subjects like science or social studies.

2. Spelling Support: By providing a list of words to reference, word banks can help students spell words correctly. They can be especially helpful for students with Dyslexia, who often struggle with spelling.

3. Idea Generation: Word banks can help stimulate ideas. If a student is having trouble getting started or is stuck in the middle of a writing task, looking at the word bank can help generate ideas for what to write next.


Spell-Check Tools

Spell-check tools can be essential for students with Dyslexia, as they often have difficulty with spelling. Digital writing tools, like those found in word processors or online writing platforms, often have built-in spell-check features. These tools:

1. Correct Errors: Spell-check tools can automatically correct spelling errors or provide suggestions for corrections, which can be especially useful for students with Dyslexia.

2. Boost Confidence: By reducing the number of spelling errors, spell-check tools can help students feel more confident about their writing.

3. Focus on Content: When students aren't overly concerned about spelling, they can focus more on their ideas and the content of their writing.


Speech-to-Text Software

Speech-to-text software can be a game changer for students with Dyslexia. These tools convert spoken language into written text, allowing students to write by speaking. They can provide several benefits:

1. Reduce Writing Effort: By allowing students to speak their thoughts instead of typing or handwriting them, speech-to-text software can make the writing process less labor-intensive and faster.

2. Improve Flow of Ideas: For some students, speaking their ideas can feel more natural and fluid than writing them down. This can result in writing that has a better flow and is richer in content.

3. Bypass Spelling Challenges: With speech-to-text, spelling becomes less of an issue because the software handles the spelling of words spoken.

With the support of word banks, spell-check tools, and speech-to-text software, students with Dyslexia can successfully navigate the challenges of writing. These supports can help students focus more on their ideas and less on the mechanics of writing, which can make writing a more enjoyable and rewarding experience.



Chunking and Pacing Strategies for Students with Dyslexia

Students with Dyslexia can experience difficulties with information processing speed and working memory, which can affect their academic performance and pace of work. Implementing chunking and pacing strategies can be greatly beneficial in managing these challenges. Here, we'll discuss how to provide clear instructions, set realistic expectations, and offer flexible deadlines.


Providing Clear Instructions

Clear and concise instructions can prevent students from becoming overwhelmed with too much information at once. Here are some strategies:

1. Simplify: Break complex tasks or instructions down into simpler, manageable parts. Instead of presenting a large project as one big task, break it down into a series of smaller tasks.

2. Repeat: Give students the opportunity to hear instructions more than once. Repetition can aid understanding and retention of information.

3. Confirm Understanding: Ask students to repeat instructions back to you or explain the task in their own words. This will ensure they've understood what's expected and provides an opportunity to clarify any misunderstandings.


Setting Realistic Expectations

Understanding the unique challenges faced by students with Dyslexia can help in setting realistic expectations. Here's how:

1. Pace: Recognize that students with Dyslexia may need more time to process information and complete tasks. Be patient and understanding about their pace of work.

2. Progress, not Perfection: Celebrate small victories and progress. Instead of focusing on the completion of tasks, concentrate on the effort and improvements made.

3. Personalize: Set individualized goals that take into account each student's strengths and challenges. This can help students experience success and build self-confidence.


Flexible Deadlines and Extended Time

Flexible deadlines and extended time are essential accommodations for students with Dyslexia. Here's why:

1. Processing Speed: Students with Dyslexia often need additional time to process information. By extending time limits and offering flexible deadlines, you're giving them the necessary space to fully understand and complete tasks.

2. Working Memory: Dyslexia can impact working memory, making it challenging for students to hold and manipulate multiple pieces of information at once. Extended time allows for a more manageable and less stressful work pace.

3. Quality of Work: With more time, students are less likely to rush through assignments, leading to improved quality of work and a better demonstration of their true capabilities.

Incorporating chunking and pacing strategies, such as clear instructions, realistic expectations, and flexible deadlines can create a more supportive learning environment for students with Dyslexia. By understanding and accommodating their unique needs, we can enhance their learning experience and help them achieve their full potential.



Assistive Technology Tools for Students with Dyslexia

Mind-Mapping Applications

Mind-mapping applications provide visual ways of organizing thoughts, ideas, and information. They can be especially helpful for students with Dyslexia because:

1. Organizing Ideas: Mind maps can help students visually organize their thoughts and ideas, making it easier to plan essays, reports, or projects.
2. Promoting Understanding: Visualizing the relationship between concepts can enhance understanding and recall of information.
3. Encouraging Creativity: The use of colors, images, and spatial arrangements can make the learning process more engaging and enjoyable, thereby stimulating creativity.


Text-to-Speech Tools

Text-to-speech tools convert written text into spoken words, enabling students to listen to text rather than read it. This can be beneficial for students with Dyslexia in several ways:

1. Improving Reading Comprehension: By hearing the text, students can focus on understanding the content without the struggle of decoding words.
2. Boosting Confidence: As students listen to correctly pronounced words and appropriate reading rhythm, their confidence in reading and language acquisition can increase.
3. Providing Accessibility: These tools allow students to access content that may be beyond their reading level, broadening their educational opportunities.


Predictive Text Software

Predictive text software anticipates the word a user intends to type, based on the first few letters inputted. This can be particularly helpful for students with Dyslexia:

1. Enhancing Writing Speed: Predictive text can significantly speed up the writing process for students who struggle with spelling and typing.
2. Reducing Spelling Errors: As the software predicts and corrects words, the number of spelling errors is minimized, leading to cleaner drafts.
3. Boosting Confidence: With fewer errors and faster typing, students can focus on their ideas rather than the mechanics of writing, enhancing their confidence and engagement in the task.

Implementing assistive technology tools like mind-mapping applications, text-to-speech tools, and predictive text software can help students with Dyslexia leverage their strengths and bypass their challenges. The goal is not to replace traditional teaching and learning methods but to complement them, facilitating an inclusive learning environment that values and caters to diverse learning needs.




Creating a Supportive Learning Environment for Students with Dyslexia

Providing a supportive learning environment is critical for all students, especially for those with learning differences like Dyslexia. Here we look at fostering peer collaboration, celebrating individual strengths, and using positive reinforcement.


Peer Collaboration

Peer collaboration involves students working together to achieve common academic goals. It can be a powerful tool for students with Dyslexia, offering several benefits:

1. Social Interaction: Collaborative activities provide opportunities for social interaction, which can enhance students' communication skills, self-confidence, and sense of belonging.

2. Shared Learning: By working together, students can learn from each other. Peers might present information in a new way that a student with Dyslexia may find easier to understand.

3. Mutual Support: Collaboration creates an environment where students can support each other, both academically and emotionally. This mutual support can be empowering for students with Dyslexia.


Celebrating Individual Strengths

Recognizing and celebrating individual strengths is crucial in a supportive learning environment. It is important to understand that while students with Dyslexia may struggle with certain tasks, they often excel in others:

1. Focus on Strengths: Instead of only focusing on areas of difficulty, highlight students' strengths. This could be in creative tasks, problem-solving, or other areas where they shine.

2. Individual Success: Celebrate individual successes, no matter how small. This can help students feel valued and increase their self-confidence.

3. Tailored Learning: Whenever possible, tailor learning activities to students' strengths. This not only helps to boost their self-esteem but can also make learning more engaging and enjoyable.


Positive Reinforcement

Positive reinforcement involves providing a reward or positive feedback when students demonstrate desired behavior or achieve a certain goal:

1. Encouragement: Positive comments and praise can greatly boost students' confidence and motivation. Acknowledge effort, improvement, and achievement regularly.

2. Rewards: Providing rewards, like stickers, points, or special privileges, can motivate students to work hard and can make learning more enjoyable.

3. Positive Atmosphere: Positive reinforcement contributes to a positive learning atmosphere, which can make students feel safe, valued, and motivated to learn.

Creating a supportive learning environment that promotes peer collaboration, celebrates individual strengths, and uses positive reinforcement can significantly enhance the educational experience for students with Dyslexia. This not only helps to cater to their specific learning needs but also fosters a sense of belonging and boosts self-esteem, thus enabling them to reach their full academic potential.



Individualized Assessment for Students with Dyslexia

Assessments are a crucial part of the learning process, allowing both teachers and students to gauge understanding and progress. For students with Dyslexia, traditional assessment methods can sometimes pose challenges. By offering a variety of assessment methods, including traditional written exams, projects, and oral presentations, educators can better cater to the unique needs and strengths of students with Dyslexia.


Traditional Written Exams

Traditional written exams can be difficult for students with Dyslexia due to their challenges with reading and writing. However, some modifications can make these assessments more accessible:

1. Extra Time: Students with Dyslexia may need additional time to process questions and construct responses. Providing extra time can help ensure that assessment results reflect the student's true understanding of the material, not their speed.

2. Clear Formatting: A clear and simple layout can make a big difference. Consider using a larger font, wide margins, and clear section headings to minimize visual confusion.

3. Accommodations: Tools such as spell-checkers or text-to-speech software can help students with Dyslexia during exams. This levels the playing field by enabling them to show their knowledge without being hindered by their Dyslexia.



Projects can be an excellent way for students with Dyslexia to demonstrate their understanding. They often involve less written work and more creativity, playing to the strengths of many students with Dyslexia.

1. Hands-On Learning: Projects often involve hands-on tasks, which can help students with Dyslexia understand and retain information.

2. Multiple Skills: Projects require a range of skills, such as problem-solving, planning, and creativity, allowing students with Dyslexia to shine in ways that written exams may not permit.

3. Choice: Providing options for project types (such as video presentations, art projects, or physical models) can cater to the individual student's strengths and interests.


Oral Presentations

Oral presentations can be another effective method of assessment for students with Dyslexia. These presentations allow students to express their understanding verbally, often a strength for students with Dyslexia.

1. Verbal Expression: For students who struggle with written expression, speaking can be a more comfortable and effective way of sharing their knowledge.

2. Visual Aids: In oral presentations, students can use visual aids to enhance their presentation and cater to their visual-spatial strengths.

3. Public Speaking Skills: Giving oral presentations can also help students with Dyslexia develop valuable skills such as public speaking and verbal communication.

In conclusion, offering a variety of individualized assessment methods can provide students with Dyslexia with the opportunities they need to truly showcase their understanding and abilities. By making adjustments and accommodations in traditional written exams, and by utilizing projects and oral presentations, educators can create a fairer, more inclusive assessment environment for all students.




Differentiation, as we've explored through various strategies and methods for supporting students with Dyslexia, is about recognizing the unique abilities and challenges of each learner.

It's about constructing a learning ecosystem that not only values but also nurtures the diverse strengths, needs, and interests of every student. This includes providing multisensory instruction, phonics programs, reading accommodations and strategies, writing supports, chunking and pacing, assistive technology tools, and fostering a supportive environment.

Ultimately, it's about enabling students with Dyslexia to reach their full potential and feel empowered in their educational journey. This ethos, rooted in understanding and inclusivity, ensures that every student, regardless of their learning differences, has access to a fulfilling, enriching, and successful educational experience.


Behaviour Help

If you are supporting an individual with this diagnosis, please refer to our services and resources. They aim to help children, adolescents and adults achieve better communication, social, emotional, behavioural and learning outcomes. So whether you are wanting guidance on parenting, teaching, supporting or providing therapy, Behaviour Help is at hand.

Note: This is not an exhaustive list of all the possible causes, symptoms and types but some general information that can be further explored. Based on what you have read if you have any concerns about an individual, please raise them with the individual/s. The caregiver can then raise these concerns with their local doctor who can provide a referral to the relevant professional (e.g. pediatrician, psychologist, psychiatrist, allied health professional and learning specialists) for diagnosis and treatment if appropriate.

Behaviour Help

If you are supporting an individual with this diagnosis, please refer to our services and resources. They aim to help children, adolescents and adults achieve better communication, social, emotional, behavioural and learning outcomes. So whether you are wanting guidance on parenting, teaching, supporting or providing therapy, Behaviour Help is at hand.

Note: This is not an exhaustive list of all the possible causes, symptoms and types but some general information that can be further explored. Based on what you have read if you have any concerns about an individual, please raise them with the individual/s. The caregiver can then raise these concerns with their local doctor who can provide a referral to the relevant professional (e.g. paediatrician, psychologist, psychiatrist, allied health professional and learning specialists) for diagnosis and treatment if appropriate.

Which resources are right for you?


Based on the Taking CHARGE of Rainbow of Emotions Workbook this app helps children of all ages develop emotional regulation skills. The app guides the child to firstly, identify and express their emotion in appropriate ways. Then the child is guided to use emotional management tool/s from the CHARGE tool kit to manage their emotions in a healthy way.

The acronym CHARGE stands for the different categories of emotional management tools – Chat tools, Helpful thinking tools, Amusement tools, Relaxation tools, Good routine tools and Exercise tools.

Behaviour Help App - Using the evidence-based approach of Positive Behaviour Support (PBS), the Behaviour Help web-based app allows people supporting individuals with emotional and behavioural difficulties to complete a Functional Behaviour Analysis and put together a comprehensive Behaviour Support Plan (BSP). The BSP can then be used by everyone interacting with the individual to manage and prevent challenging behaviours and ultimately improve their lives, and the lives of those who support them.


If you want to learn more about emotional and behavioural difficulties then we have a great range of books you can read on your Kindle or order from Amazon.


Personalised and practical one to one help tailored specifically to your family.

Online Courses

Access these online courses anytime online to learn about a range of diagnoses, practical skills and strategies to help develop the individual’s emotional regulation skills. Also learn to utilise the positive behaviour support framework to address anxiety, aggression, ADHD, ASD and ODD.

SEL Educational Videos

Minimise or eliminate the occurrence of challenging behaviours by teaching children of all ages appropriate ways of communicating, interacting, managing their emotions and behaviours.

The SEL curriculum uses video modelling to provide direct, explicit and systematic teaching of the various skills by discussing the importance of the skill, modelling the skill so the child learns what the skill looks like? sounds like? feels like? and learn the skill in staged situations that simulate real life scenarios.


Personalised and practical behaviour therapy tailored specifically to your family.


Webinars discuss a range of practical strategies to guide your child learn positive ways of behaving and managing their emotions.


Attend our practical and interactive workshops to learn about a range of diagnoses, practical skills and strategies to help develop the individual’s emotions, behaviours, social and communication skills in your learning environment.

Ask Dolly

Since you’re here, you probably have questions and concerns. I am Dolly Bhargava, am here to help. I am a NDIS registered behaviour support practitioner and speech pathologist.

I have worked in a number of settings for over 21 years so, how can I help?

Please tell me what is worrying you right now and I will do my best to recommend resources and/or services that will be most useful to you in your situation.

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