Definition of Developmental Disabilities
Developmental disability (also known as neurodevelopmental disability) is an umbrella term that includes a diverse range of diagnoses which arise from an impairment of the central nervous system. This means there are differences in brain development, structures and functioning.
Types of Developmental Disabilities
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th edition (DSM-V) (American Psychiatric Association, 2013), is a handbook that is used by professionals around the world to diagnose mental disorders. The DSM–V lists the various types:
- Intellectual Disability (Intellectual Developmental Disorder)
- Global Developmental Delay
- Unspecified Intellectual Disability (Intellectual Developmental Disorder)
- Language Disorder
- Speech Sound Disorder (previously Phonological Disorder)
- Childhood-Onset Fluency Disorder (Stuttering)
- Social (Pragmatic) Communication Disorder
- Unspecified Communication Disorder
Autism Spectrum Disorder
Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder
Specific Learning Disorder
This is a neurodevelopmental disorder that begins during school-age, although may not be recognised until adulthood. For example, dyslexia, dysgraphia and dyscalculia. These disorders can have a range of impacts. For example, difficulties with putting thoughts into written words, spelling, reading comprehension, math calculation and math problem solving. Difficulties with these skills may cause problems in learning subjects such as history, math, science and social studies and may impact everyday activities.
- Cerebral Palsy
- Developmental Coordination Disorder
- Stereotypic Movement Disorder
- Tic Disorders
- Tourette’s Disorder
- Persistent (Chronic) Motor or Vocal Tic Disorder
- Provisional Tic Disorder
- Other Specified Tic Disorder
- Unspecified Tic Disorder
Unspecified Neurodevelopmental Disorder (UNDD)
UNDD is a diagnosis given to persons experiencing symptoms of a neurodevelopmental disorder, but the symptoms don’t meet the full criteria for one of the Neurodevelopmental disorders. Symptoms of UNDD could include:
- Failure to reach expected developmental milestones for walking and speech.
- Inability to interact appropriately with peers.
- Poor academic performance.
- Overreaction to frustration compared to peers.
- Emotionally labile in comparison to peers.
Causes of Developmental Disabilities
These disorders are developmental in the sense that delays, disorders, or impairments are severe and last throughout a person’s lifetime. The conditions are a result of a complex mix of factors that may or may not be identifiable. The causes include:
- Before birth related factors such as: genetics; parental health (e.g. infections and diseases the mother might have had during pregnancy); parental behaviours (e.g. smoking, drinking and drug taking during pregnancy) and exposure to high levels of environmental toxins (e.g. lead, mercury).
- Around birth related factors such as low birth weight, prematurity and obstetric complications.
- After birth related factors such as exposure to infections, diseases, malnutrition and injury experienced any time before the age of 18 years.
Symptoms of Developmental Disabilities
Having a developmental disability impacts skills within these areas:
- Cognitive development
- Independent living
- Economic self-sufficiency
Depending on the disorder, type, and degree of disability, the individual has the symptoms will vary in how it presents in each developmental area.
If you are supporting an individual with this diagnosis, please refer to our services and resources. They aim to help children, adolescents and adults achieve better communication, social, emotional, behavioural and learning outcomes. So whether you are wanting guidance on parenting, teaching, supporting or providing therapy, Behaviour Help is at hand.
Note: This is not an exhaustive list of all the possible causes, symptoms and types but some general information that can be further explored. Based on what you have read if you have any concerns about an individual, please raise them with the individual/s. The caregiver can then raise these concerns with their local doctor who can provide a referral to the relevant professional (e.g. paediatrician, psychologist, psychiatrist, allied health professional and learning specialists) for diagnosis and treatment if appropriate.
Which resources are right for you?
Based on the Taking CHARGE of Rainbow of Emotions Workbook this app helps children of all ages develop emotional regulation skills. The app guides the child to firstly, identify and express their emotion in appropriate ways. Then the child is guided to use emotional management tool/s from the CHARGE tool kit to manage their emotions in a healthy way.
The acronym CHARGE stands for the different categories of emotional management tools – Chat tools, Helpful thinking tools, Amusement tools, Relaxation tools, Good routine tools and Exercise tools.
Behaviour Help App - Using the evidence-based approach of Positive Behaviour Support (PBS), the Behaviour Help web-based app allows people supporting individuals with emotional and behavioural difficulties to complete a Functional Behaviour Analysis and put together a comprehensive Behaviour Support Plan (BSP). The BSP can then be used by everyone interacting with the individual to manage and prevent challenging behaviours and ultimately improve their lives, and the lives of those who support them.
If you want to learn more about emotional and behavioural difficulties then we have a great range of books you can read on your Kindle or order from Amazon.
Personalised and practical one to one help tailored specifically to your family.
Access these online courses anytime online to learn about a range of diagnoses, practical skills and strategies to help develop the individual’s emotional regulation skills. Also learn to utilise the positive behaviour support framework to address anxiety, aggression, ADHD, ASD and ODD.
SEL Educational Videos
Minimise or eliminate the occurrence of challenging behaviours by teaching children of all ages appropriate ways of communicating, interacting, managing their emotions and behaviours.
The SEL curriculum uses video modelling to provide direct, explicit and systematic teaching of the various skills by discussing the importance of the skill, modelling the skill so the child learns what the skill looks like? sounds like? feels like? and learn the skill in staged situations that simulate real life scenarios.
Personalised and practical behaviour therapy tailored specifically to your family.
Webinars discuss a range of practical strategies to guide your child learn positive ways of behaving and managing their emotions.
Attend our practical and interactive workshops to learn about a range of diagnoses, practical skills and strategies to help develop the individual’s emotions, behaviours, social and communication skills in your learning environment.